Frequently Asked Questions

Is Enketo open source?

Yes it is! The source code is here.

How can Enketo (Express) work offline?

The first time you load any Enketo Express survey, a copy of the app and survey are stored in the browser. An icon will be shown in the top left of your screen to confirm that it has been stored. From that point onwards you can load that survey even when you do not have an Internet connection.

You can safely shut down your computer and go to the field to collect data. Any data you collect will also be stored persistently in the browser. Enketo will check regularly to see if there is an Internet connection available and try to upload any records that have not been marked as 'draft'. Once the server has confirmed that the data was received successfully, the record will be deleted from the browser storage.

More details can be read in this old blog post and this technical faq.

What are the future plans for the Enketo project?

Our high-level roadmap is published here. The activity in Enketo's repositories is another good indicator of what is happening.

What software license is Enketo provided under?

See license details for each Enketo app and library in the files of each repository.

What browsers are supported and recommended?

All popular modern browsers are supported and recommended on all platforms except on iOS. They are: Chrome, Firefox, and Edge.

In addition, a couple of non-modern (and rather terrible) browsers are supported that lag years behind the competition. They are: Safari and Internet Explorer 11.

On iOS, modern browsers are sadly not allowed by Apple. For example, Chrome on iOS is just the Apple-provided browser engine with a few missing features and a Chrome skin. It is not the real Chrome. Therefore, on iOS only, we have no choice but to recommend Safari as it is the least bad iOS browser available.

What does "Enketo" mean and how is it pronounced?

Enketo means "survey" in Esperanto.

We are not sure how to properly pronounce it in Esperanto but you could say [\in-ˈke-tō]. The first "e" and second "e" should be pronounced the same because each letter has only one pronounciation in Esperanto. (How cool is that!)

How is this project funded and sustained?

The development of Enketo libraries and apps is supported by code contributors and financial contributions by companies and organizations that have adopted Enketo. These organizations are providing Enketo-powered tools as part of their own information management products.

What are the technologies used for offline capabilities of Enketo (Express)?

The app itself is cached in the browser using the Application Cache. In the future, when browser support becomes widespread, we plan to switch to Service Workers.

The data, form, and form resources are stored in the browser using indexedDb.

What is the difference between Enketo Express and Enketo Core?

Enketo Core is a library that contains Enketo's form engine. It is not an app by itself but a minimal and not-very-opinionated building block that can be used to create Enketo-powered apps.

Enketo Express is one of the apps that is powered by Enketo Core. There are quite a few others created and maintained by various companies and organizations.

For more information see this page.

What is the form format that Enketo supports?

Enketo supports only one form format and that is the widely adopted, open-source OpenRosa XForms format.

Very few people directly build forms in this format though. The most popular, and recommended, way to create the supported XForms is to create them as XLSForms and then convert them to XForms. Many information management systems will do this conversion for you, behind-the-scenes, and therefore appear to support XLSForms directly.

What is the relationship between OpenClinica and Enketo?

OpenClinica is using Enketo throughout its platform. It is the major sponsor of Enketo and directly responsible for many of its features.

What is the relationship between Enketo and Open Data Kit (ODK)?

Enketo and ODK are following the same XForms format and APIs. This means Enketo Express (and some other Enketo-powered apps) can be used in conjunction with ODK Aggregate. They should be seen as an alternative for ODK Collect. The codebases of Enketo Express and ODK Collect are completely separate and both are 100% unique implementations of the same specifications.

Within the ODK Developer Community, Enketo has taken on the role of documenting and guarding the XForms specification. The specification is published at In addition Enketo is actively involved in proposing and discussing additions and changes to the specifications in the ODK Developers' fora.

What is the relationship between Enketo and KoBoToolbox?

Enketo Express is an integral part of and KoBoToolbox has historically sponsored a large chunk of Enketo Express' development. It still provides code, emotional support, and funding for bug fixes.

What is the relationship between Enketo and Ona?

Enketo Express is an integral part of Ona has historically played a major role in Enketo's development and design. Ona still contributes code, sponsorship, emotional support, and translations to Enketo.

Can I help translate Enketo Express?

Please do! Request here to be added to an existing language or to request for a new language to be added.